D. All of These
Explanation :Following are the major components of Administrative Process.
1. Planning:- The key to efficient school administration is planning. Planning implies the working out of the broad outlines from the beginning to the end. While planning, school administrative should:
a. Clearly defined the goals.
b. Enunciate the methods, rules and regulations under which these activities are to be performed.
c. Sort out the materials that may be helpful at implementation stage.
2. Organizing:-Organization is the primary consideration. Organization refers to any collection of persons, materials, procedures, ideas or facts, so arranged and ordered that in each case the combination of parts makes a meaningful whole.
3. Direction:- Direction is leadership. It is guidance as well as counselling. Explaining the meaning of direction J.B Sears says “Direction in administration is that part that affects the decision, gives signals to act, indicates what the action is to be and when it is to start and stop”. According to this definition direction refers to
a. Making of decision;
b. Enunciating those decisions;
c. Ensuring their implementation.
4. Coordination:- Coordination involves harmonious proportion between the various elements which comprise administration. The activities of different personnel can be effectively coordinated only if they work in cooperative spirit and organize into a team achieving the desired ends.
5. Controlling:- Proper administration pre-supposes intelligent control over the total school situation. Control is to exercised over the school finances, curricular activities, text-books and general puts organization into action; coordination ensures better on going of various activities. Both these activities are covered by intelligent control of the situation.